Wikipedia Estland


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Wikipedia Estland

(Aus dem Artikel "Estland Trekking " des "Outdoorwiki" der Pfadfinder Baden​-Württembergs). Das Land ist auf WLAN-Basis voll vernetzt. Estland [ˈeːstlant; ˈɛstlant] (estnisch Eesti [ ˈeːsʲti], amtlich Republik Estland, estnisch Eesti Vabariik) ist ein Staat im Baltikum. Als nördlichster der drei. Estland gehört zu den drei baltischen Staaten. [big10pixels.coms Transaviabaltika) mit kleinen Propellermaschinen vom Typ [big10pixels.comdia.​org/wiki/.

Willkommen auf den Seiten des Auswärtigen Amts

Datenschutz · Über Wikivoyage · Kontakt und Impressum · Nutzungsbedingungen · Klassische Ansicht. Energie wird in Estland größtenteils durch die großen Ölschiefervorkommen im 27 Wikipedia, Februar von big10pixels.com Von nicht notwendigen, touristischen Reisen in die übrigen Regionen Estlands wird vor dem Hintergrund geltender Quarantäneregelungen abgeraten.

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Wikipedia Estland

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Gäste bringen Blumen mit. Nimi Pikemalt artiklis Eesti nimi Eesti nime algupära on sageli nähtud aestide nimes, keda teadaolevalt esimest korda mainis Rooma ajaloolane Tacitus oma raamatus "Germania" (kujul Aestiorum gentes, Aestii, umbes aastal), hilisemates allikates esines see nimi kujul Hestis (Cassiodorus, –), Aesti (Jordanis, ), Aisti (Einhard, ), Esto, Estum (Wulfstan, ), Iste (Widsith, Estland [ ˈeːstlant; ˈɛstlant] (estnisch Eesti [ ˈeːsʲti ], amtlich Republik Estland, estnisch Eesti Vabariik) ist ein Staat im Baltikum. Als nördlichster der drei baltischen Staaten grenzt es im Süden an Lettland, im Osten an Russland sowie im Norden und Westen an die Ostsee. Estonia (Estonian: Eesti ()), officially the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a country on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea in Northern big10pixels.com is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden, to the south by Latvia, and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia. Tartu (Estonian pronunciation: South Estonian: Tarto) is the second largest city of Estonia, after Estonia's political and financial capital big10pixels.comed kilometres ( miles) southeast of Tallinn and kilometres ( miles) northeast of Riga, the capital of Latvia. Estland;, officielt Republikken Estland, er et land i den baltiske region i Nordeuropa. Det grænser mod nord til Finske Bugt, til vest mod Østersøen, til syd mod Letland samt den østlige grænse mod Rusland, som hovedsagelig består af søen Peipus på km². Estland har søgrænser over Østersøen mod vest med Sverige og Finland i nord. Estland har et samlet areal på km², heraf vand km², landareal på km², og har et fugtigt fastlandsklima. Estland er en. Das Projekt wird von der EU finanziell unterstützt und soll abgeschlossen werden. Der Sport hat in Estland einen hohen Stellenwert. Der internationale Coinbase Forum beschränkt sich auf Verbindungen nach Moskau und St. Estonia (Estonian: Eesti ()), officially the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a country on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea in Northern big10pixels.com is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden, to the south by Latvia, and to the east by Lake Peipus and big10pixels.com territory of Estonia consists of the Calling code: + Estland ligger på østkysten av Østersjøen med Finskebukta i nord, Russland i øst og Latvia sør. Landet er flatt og den gjennomsnittlige høyden er ikke høyere enn 50 meter, og det høyeste punktet i landet, Suur Munamägi, ligger i sørøst med meter. [trenger referanse] Grunnfjellet er dekket av et skikt kalkstein, sandstein og big10pixels.com i nord er preget av Flagg: Riksvåpen. Estland har et samlet areal på km², heraf vand km², landareal på km², og har et fugtigt fastlandsklima. Estland er en demokratisk, parlamentarisk republik, der er inddelt i 15 amter og 79 (siden 1. november ) kommuner, og dets hovedstad og største by er big10pixels.comndte regionale sprog: Võro, Setu. Estland [ˈeːstlant; ˈɛstlant] (estnisch Eesti [ ˈeːsʲti], amtlich Republik Estland, estnisch Eesti Vabariik) ist ein Staat im Baltikum. Als nördlichster der drei. Geographisch liegt Estland jedoch im Baltikum. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Name; 2 Geschichte. Datenschutz · Über Wikivoyage · Kontakt und Impressum · Nutzungsbedingungen · Klassische Ansicht. Estland gehört zu den drei baltischen Staaten. [big10pixels.coms Transaviabaltika) mit kleinen Propellermaschinen vom Typ [big10pixels.comdia.​org/wiki/.

Estland blev protestantisk i Svenskerne beholdt den administrative inddeling i to provinser. Denne inddeling varede indtil tallet.

Sovjetiske styrker genbesatte Estland i De sovjetiske styrker deporterede tidligere medlemmer af Waffen-SS og andre nazister ved massedeportationer i marts Det estiske medlemskab i Sovjetunionen varede til d.

De sidste tidligere sovjetiske tropper forlod Estland d. Estland blev medlem af EU den 1. Estland blev desuden medlem af NATO i Estlands politiske forhold reguleres gennem grundloven , Eesti Vabariigi Põhiseadus.

Denne blev godkendt den Der kan ikke udskrives valg i utide. Beslutninger, herunder vedtagelse af love, sker ved almindeligt flertal [22].

Regeringens virksomhed omfatter [26] blandt andet:. Han er i ledelsen af sit kancelli sidestillet med en minister [30].

Et dokument, der ikke er i overensstemmelse med loven, indstilles af ham til annulering ved dom [31]. Kommunister og socialister er helt forsvundet ud af estisk politik.

Tevens bestaan er kleinere islamitische gemeenschappen van minderheden uit de voormalige Sovjet-Unie. In de jaren 90 heeft Estland vergaande economische liberaliseringen doorgevoerd, zo is er in een vlaktaks ingevoerd.

Estland stond in op de twaalfde plek op de ranglijst van economische vrijheid van de conservatieve Heritage Foundation.

In mei besliste de Europese Commissie dat Estland op 1 januari de euro mocht invoeren. Estlands toetreding tot de eurozone kwam net tijdens de Griekse crisis en kwam volgens heel wat analisten daardoor op een slecht moment.

In Estland worden enkele festivals jaarlijks gehouden. Sinds vindt het Weekend Festival plaats in Pärnu. Ook is er het Estisch Zangfeest , waar amateurkoren uit heel Estland optreden.

Bij het laatste festival in zakten zowat Het jaar daarna trok het bekende festival naar de Saku Suurhall , de grootste concertzaal van het land.

De nationale feestdag is de Onafhankelijkheidsdag van Estland, en is op 24 februari. Er zijn 12 feestdagen in Estland die redelijk goed te vergelijken zijn met de westerse feestdagen.

Estland kent enkele belangrijke sporters in de autosport, fietssport en het langlaufen. Jaan Kirsipuu was een zeer succesvol professioneel wielrenner.

Hij heeft profzeges op zijn naam staan en droeg de gele trui in de Ronde van Frankrijk. Kaia Kanepi is een belangrijke tennisspeelster, die al professioneel speelt sinds Ze stond lange tijd in de top 20 van beste speelsters en bereikte de kwartfinales van Roland Garros , Wimbledon en het US Open.

Computers en het internet zijn een onderdeel van de nationale identiteit van Estland geworden. Tot augustus werd Estland bezet door de Sovjet-Unie.

Opgescheept met verouderde Sovjet -technologie besloot het land het meest vooruitstrevende technologische land van de wereld te worden.

De Esten voelden zich door de rest van de wereld in de steek gelaten en besloten een volk van doeners te worden: "Als je iets nodig hebt, moet je het zelf maken.

In was Estland het eerste land dat door een cyberaanval getroffen werd. Daarna is er e-cyberafdeling van het leger opgericht, bemand door betrokken burgers en bedoeld om hackers buiten de deur te houden.

Estland loopt voorop bij digitale vernieuwingen. Zo kunnen de Esten al sinds via het internet hun stem uitbrengen bij de verkiezingen. Ook zijn er veel technologiebedrijven opgericht, bijvoorbeeld Skype.

De digitalisering van Estland heeft als doel om het contact tussen de overheid en de burgers, en de overheden onderling te verbeteren en de bureaucratie te verminderen.

De technische oplossingen dienen ook als exportartikel. Estland kent vele digitale toepassingen die het leven van de burger gemakkelijker kunnen maken, zoals stemmen via het internet, vanaf elke computer, waar ook ter wereld.

Het belastingformulier kan digitaal worden ingevuld; eventuele teruggaaf is binnen 48 uur geregeld. Alle wetgeving in Estland, vanaf , is vanaf de computer te raadplegen.

Een papieren recept voor de apotheek is ook niet meer nodig. Veilige, geauthenticeerde identiteit is het geboorterecht van iedere Est: voordat een pasgeboren baby thuiskomt, heeft het ziekenhuis al een digitaal geboortebewijs afgegeven en is zijn ziektekostenverzekering al ingegaan.

Door nieuwe regelgeving is het voor buitenlanders mogelijk om een Estische elektronische identiteitskaart aan te vragen. In zouden 10 miljoen mensen, wereldwijd, over een digitale identiteitskaart kunnen beschikken.

Daarmee zou het aantal Esten verachtvoudigen. De digitale Esten hebben niet dezelfde rechten als inwoners van het land. Hun wettelijke positie is vergelijkbaar met die van buitenlanders die wonen in de Baltische staat.

Er treedt een Europese wet in werking, waarbij lidstaten verplicht worden om elkaars digitale identiteitsbewijzen te accepteren.

Finland en andere EU-staten zijn van plan om delen van het Estische it-systeem over te nemen. Estland is een parlementaire democratie met als staatshoofd Kersti Kaljulaid , die in oktober Toomas Hendrik Ilves opvolgde.

Premier is Jüri Ratas sinds november De president heeft relatief weinig bevoegdheden. Het Estische parlement wordt Riigikogu genoemd.

Dock tar denna resa över nio timmar jämfört med bussresan som tar knappt fem timmar. Men planer finns att, via EU-medel, rusta upp stambanan till europeisk standard.

En stor del av järnvägsnätet i Estland är inte elektrifierat. För närvarande trafikeras följande järnvägslinjer med persontrafik:. De balttyska och svenska minoriteterna tvingades i stort sett fullständigt lämna Estland i samband med de stalinistiska utrensningarna.

I Tallinn är uppemot halva befolkningen rysktalande. De sistnämnda kan med estniska främlingspass resa mellan Ryssland och Estland utan visum.

Ändringar i lagen om medborgarskap antogs i januari Estniskt medborgarskap, eller medborgarskap i ett annat EU -land, krävs för att bilda och vara medlem i politiska partier.

I Estland finns Estniska evangelisk-lutherska kyrkan med ca medlemmar , Estlands apostoliska ortodoxa kyrka med omkring 20 medlemmar och Estlands ortodoxa kyrka Moskvapatriarkatet med omkring medlemmar.

Därtill finns bland andra kristna: baptister , katoliker , Jehovas vittnen , gammaltroende ortodoxa och pingstvänner.

Den högre kulturen i Estland var länge präglad av först Tyskland — stadsbefolkningen och adeln var tysk baltisk — och Sverige samt övriga Norden, senare av Ryssland.

Ett nationellt särdrag är dock byggnaderna i kalksten, t. Modernismen kom till Estland redan under den tsarryska tiden och har levt kvar sedan dess.

Den internationellt mest kände nutida tonsättaren är Arvo Pärt, vars verk ofta har en sakral ortodox prägel. Veljo Tormis förvaltade och förnyade det estniska folkmusikarvet i stora körverk.

Det är vanligt att man sjunger till bords. Händelsen kom att kallas den sjungande revolutionen. Den estniska filmen beskrivs i artikeln Estlands filmhistoria.

För andra betydelser, se Estland olika betydelser. Huvudartikel: Estlands historia. Although the Estonian and Germanic languages are of very different origins, one can identify many similar words in Estonian and German.

This is primarily because the Estonian language has borrowed nearly one third of its vocabulary from Germanic languages , mainly from Low Saxon Middle Low German during the period of German rule , and High German including standard German.

The percentage of Low Saxon and High German loanwords can be estimated at 22—25 percent, with Low Saxon making up about 15 percent.

South Estonian languages are spoken by , people and include the dialects of Võro and Seto. The languages are spoken in South-Eastern Estonia, are genealogically distinct from northern Estonian: but are traditionally and officially considered as dialects and "regional forms of the Estonian language", not separate language s.

Russian is by far the most spoken minority language in the country. There are towns in Estonia with large concentrations of Russian speakers and there are towns where Estonian speakers are in the minority especially in the northeast, e.

Russian is spoken as a secondary language by forty- to seventy-year-old ethnic Estonians, because Russian was the unofficial language of the Estonian SSR from to and taught as a compulsory second language during the Soviet era.

From the 13th to the 20th century, there were Swedish-speaking communities in Estonia, particularly in the coastal areas and on the islands e.

The Swedish-speaking minority was represented in parliament, and entitled to use their native language in parliamentary debates.

From to , when Estonia was independent, the small Swedish community was well treated. Municipalities with a Swedish majority, mainly found along the coast, used Swedish as the administrative language and Swedish-Estonian culture saw an upswing.

Only a handful of older speakers remain. The most common foreign languages learned by Estonian students are English, Russian, German, and French.

Other popular languages include Finnish, Spanish, and Swedish. The history of formal education in Estonia dates back to the 13th and 14th centuries when the first monastic and cathedral schools were founded.

In , university courses were first taught in the Estonian language. Today's education in Estonia is divided into general, vocational, and hobby.

The education system is based on four levels: pre-school, basic, secondary, and higher education. The Estonian education system consists of state, municipal, public, and private institutions.

There are currently schools in Estonia. According to the Programme for International Student Assessment , the performance levels of gymnasium-age pupils in Estonia is among the highest in the world: in , the country was ranked 13th for the quality of its education system, well above the OECD average.

Academic higher education in Estonia is divided into three levels: bachelor's, master's, and doctoral studies. In some specialties basic medical studies, veterinary, pharmacy, dentistry, architect-engineer, and a classroom teacher programme the bachelor's and master's levels are integrated into one unit.

In addition to organising the academic life of the university, universities can create new curricula, establish admission terms and conditions, approve the budget, approve the development plan, elect the rector, and make restricted decisions in matters concerning assets.

The Estonian Academy of Sciences is the national academy of science. The first computer centres were established in the late s in Tartu and Tallinn.

Estonian specialists contributed in the development of software engineering standards for ministries of the Soviet Union during the s.

According to New Scientist , Estonia will be the first nation to provide personal genetic information service sponsored by the state.

They aim to minimise and prevent future ailments for those whose genes make them extra prone to conditions like adult-onset diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

The government plans to provide lifestyle advice based on the DNA for , of its 1. The culture of Estonia incorporates indigenous heritage, as represented by the Estonian language and the sauna , with mainstream Nordic and European cultural aspects.

Because of its history and geography, Estonia's culture has been influenced by the traditions of the adjacent area's various Finnic, Baltic, Slavic and Germanic peoples as well as the cultural developments in the former dominant powers Sweden and Russia.

Today, Estonian society encourages liberty and liberalism, with popular commitment to the ideals of the limited government, discouraging centralised power and corruption.

The Protestant work ethic remains a significant cultural staple, and free education is a highly prized institution.

Like the mainstream culture in the other Nordic countries, Estonian culture can be seen to build upon the ascetic environmental realities and traditional livelihoods, a heritage of comparatively widespread egalitarianism out of practical reasons see: Everyman's right and universal suffrage , and the ideals of closeness to nature and self-sufficiency see: summer cottage.

The Estonian Academy of Arts Estonian: Eesti Kunstiakadeemia , EKA is providing higher education in art, design, architecture, media, art history and conservation while Viljandi Culture Academy of University of Tartu has an approach to popularise native culture through such curricula as native construction, native blacksmithing, native textile design, traditional handicraft and traditional music, but also jazz and church music.

The older folksongs are also referred to as regilaulud , songs in the poetic metre regivärss the tradition shared by all Baltic Finns.

Runic singing was widespread among Estonians until the 18th century, when rhythmic folk songs began to replace them. Traditional wind instruments derived from those used by shepherds were once widespread, but are now becoming again more commonly played.

Other instruments, including the fiddle , zither , concertina , and accordion are used to play polka or other dance music. The kannel is a native instrument that is now again becoming more popular in Estonia.

The tradition of Estonian Song Festivals Laulupidu started at the height of the Estonian national awakening in Today, it is one of the largest amateur choral events in the world.

In , about , people participated in the Song Festival. The last festival took place in July In addition, Youth Song Festivals are also held every four or five years, the last of them in In the s, Estonian baritone Georg Ots rose to worldwide prominence as an opera singer.

In popular music, Estonian artist Kerli Kõiv has become popular in Europe, as well as gaining moderate popularity in North America.

She has provided music for the Disney film Alice in Wonderland and the television series Smallville in the United States of America.

In , Estonia hosted the event. Lenna Kuurmaa is a very popular singer in Europe, [ citation needed ] with her band Vanilla Ninja. The Estonian literature refers to literature written in the Estonian language ca.

The oldest records of written Estonian date from the 13th century. Originates Livoniae in Chronicle of Henry of Livonia contains Estonian place names, words and fragments of sentences.

The Liber Census Daniae contains Estonian place and family names. The cultural stratum of Estonian was originally characterised by a largely lyrical form of folk poetry based on syllabic quantity.

Apart from a few albeit remarkable exceptions, this archaic form has not been much employed in later times.

One of the most outstanding achievements in this field is the national epic Kalevipoeg. At a professional level, traditional folk song reached its new heyday during the last quarter of the 20th century, primarily thanks to the work of composer Veljo Tormis.

Oskar Luts was the most prominent prose writer of the early Estonian literature, who is still widely read today, especially his lyrical school novel Kevade Spring.

The cinema of Estonia started in with the production of a newsreel about Swedish King Gustav V 's visit to Tallinn. Regular, live radio broadcasts began in December Deregulation in the field of electronic media has brought radical changes compared to the beginning of the s.

The first licences for private TV broadcasters were issued in The first private radio station went on the air in Today the media is a vibrant and competitive sector.

There is a plethora of weekly newspapers and magazines, and Estonians have a choice of 9 domestic TV channels and a host of radio stations.

The Constitution guarantees freedom of speech, and Estonia has been internationally recognised for its high rate of press freedom, having been ranked 3rd in the Press Freedom Index by Reporters Without Borders.

Estonia has two news agencies. The ETV24 is an agency owned by Eesti Rahvusringhääling who is a publicly funded radio and television organisation created on 30 June to take over the functions of the formerly separate Eesti Raadio and Eesti Televisioon under the terms of the Estonian National Broadcasting Act.

The architectural history of Estonia mainly reflects its contemporary development in northern Europe. In addition, the country has several unique, more or less preserved hill forts dating from pre-Christian times, a large number of still intact medieval castles and churches, while the countryside is still shaped by the presence of a vast number of manor houses from earlier centuries.

As of [update] , there are 12 public holidays which come with a day off and 12 national holidays celebrated annually. Historically, the cuisine of Estonia has been heavily dependent on seasons and simple peasant food.

Today, it includes many typical international foods. The most typical foods in Estonia are black bread, pork, potatoes, and dairy products. Hunting and fishing have also been very common, although currently hunting and fishing are enjoyed mostly as hobbies.

Today, it is also very popular to grill outside in summer. Traditionally in winter, jams, preserves, and pickles are brought to the table. Gathering and preserving fruits, mushrooms, and vegetables for winter has always been popular, but today gathering and preserving is becoming less common because everything can be bought from stores.

However, preparing food for winter is still very popular in the countryside. Sport plays an important role in Estonian culture.

After declaring independence from Russia in , Estonia first competed as a nation at the Summer Olympics , although the National Olympic Committee was established in Estonian athletes took part of the Olympic Games until the country was annexed by the Soviet Union in The Summer Olympics Sailing regatta was held in the capital city Tallinn.

After regaining independence in , Estonia has participated in all Olympics. Estonia has won most of its medals in athletics , weightlifting , wrestling and cross-country skiing.

Estonia has had very good success at the Olympic games given the country's small population. Estonia's best results were being ranked 13th in the medal table at the Summer Olympics , and 12th at the Winter Olympics.

Paul Keres , Estonian and Soviet chess grandmaster, was among the world's top players from the mids to the mids.

He narrowly missed a chance at a World Chess Championship match on five occasions. Kiiking , a relatively new sport, was invented in by Ado Kosk in Estonia.

Basketball is also a notable sport in Estonia. The domestic top-tier basketball championship is called the Korvpalli Meistriliiga. University of Tartu team has won the league a record 26 times.

Estonian clubs also participate in European and regional competitions. Estonia national basketball team previously participated in Summer Olympics , appeared in EuroBasket four times.

Estonian national team also competed at the EuroBasket Kelly Sildaru , an Estonian freestyle skier, won the gold medal in the slopestyle event in the Winter X Games.

At age 13, she became the youngest gold medalist to date at a Winter X Games event, and the first person to win a Winter X Games medal for Estonia.

She has also won the women's slopestyle at and Winter Dew Tour. In modern-era motorsports, World Rally Championship has seen two very successful Estonian drivers, with Ott Tänak winning the drivers' world title in the World Rally Championship and Markko Märtin achieving 5 rally victories and finishing 3rd overall in the World Rally Championship.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Baltic country in Northern Europe. This article is about the European country. For a cruise ferry sunk in , see MS Estonia.

For other meanings, see Estonia disambiguation. For the language, see Estonian language. The Supreme Court and one ministry are based in Tartu.

According to the Constitution of Estonia , Estonian is the sole official language. Russian is spoken in parts of Ida-Virumaa and Tallinn. Including 5.

The ceded areas include most of the former Petseri County and areas east of the Narva river including Ivangorod Jaanilinn. Main article: Name of Estonia.

Main article: History of Estonia. Main article: Swedish Estonia. Main article: Singing Revolution. Main article: Geography of Estonia.

Main article: Climate of Estonia. Main articles: Fauna of Estonia and Protected areas of Estonia. Kersti Kaljulaid President.

Jüri Ratas Prime Minister. Main articles: Law of Estonia and Constitution of Estonia. Main articles: Foreign relations of Estonia and Diplomatic missions of Estonia.

Main article: Economy of Estonia. Main article: Tallinn Stock Exchange. Main article: Demographics of Estonia. Residents of Estonia by ethnicity [] Estonians.

Main article: List of cities and towns in Estonia. Main article: Religion in Estonia. Main article: Languages of Estonia.

Main article: Education in Estonia. Main articles: Culture of Estonia and List of Estonians. Main article: Music of Estonia.

Main article: Literature of Estonia. See also: Estophile. See also: List of Estonian films and List of Estonian war films.

Main article: Architecture of Estonia. Main article: Public holidays in Estonia. Main article: Estonian cuisine.

See also: Kama food , Kalev confectioner , Kohuke , and Verivorst. Main article: Sport in Estonia. Estonia portal. Riigi Teataja.

Archived from the original PDF on 13 May Retrieved 12 May Statistics Estonia. Retrieved 9 January Retrieved 19 July Retrieved 11 October Retrieved 26 January International Monetary Fund.

Retrieved 10 September United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 14 December Postimees 13 July Retrieved 26 November ERR News.

Retrieved 7 June Global Politician. Archived from the original on 28 June Retrieved 5 June Reports Without Borders.

Retrieved 29 May The Economist. Retrieved 28 October Retrieved 20 October Laneman, Margot ed. Estonian Archaeology.

Tartu University Press. Retrieved 21 January Eesti Päevaleht. Retrieved 1 November Estonia: Identity and Independence. Through past millennia: archaeological discoveries in Estonia.

A History of the Baltic States. Palgrave Macmillan. The Estonians; The long road to independence. Retrieved 27 December Estonian Journal of Archaeology.

Estonia and the Estonians: Second Edition, Updated. Hoover Press. Sigtuna hukkumine Haridus, 7—8 , pp. Retrieved 19 December In Barrett, James H.

Maritime Societies of the Viking and Medieval World. Maney Publishing. Journal of Nordic Archaeological Science.

Wikipedia Estland Main article: Tallinn Stock Exchange. The Wall Street Journal. After the loss of its de Frankfurt Arsenal independence for the Soviet Lootboxen Vergleich, Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by diplomatic representatives and the government-in-exile. Inthe city was officially retitled to the ancient Russian name Yuryev. Estonian specialists contributed in the development of software engineering standards for ministries of the Soviet Union during the s. Rauaaja alguseks Eestis loetakse aastat eKr, Wikipedia Estland märkimisväärsema rolli tööriistade ja relvade valmistamisel omandas raud alles umbes aastal eKr, mil seda metalli Hohenheim Sport sulatama kohapealsest maagist. Estonia is a unitary parliamentary republic. New York: St. Dock tar denna resa över nio timmar jämfört med bussresan som tar knappt fem timmar. Retrieved Frankreich Mannschaft 2021 June Estland ble medlem av NATO Estonia was a member of the League of Nations from 22 Septemberand became a member of the United Nations on 17 September Tervishoidu rahastatakse Eestis riigieelarvest ravikindlustuse eelarve vahenditest Eesti Haigekassa kaudu, samuti otseeraldistena riigieelarvest, valla- ja linnaeelarvetest, Wikipedia Estland rahast ja teistest allikatest. Peamiselt puudutab see maapiirkonnast suurtesse linnadesse, sh Tallinna, viimase kümne aasta jooksul elama asunuid. De pogingen tot rekatholicering door Polen boekten nauwelijks resultaat. Estonia's best results were being ranked 13th in the medal table at the Summer Olympicsand 12th at the Winter Olympics. Kumbki jõud ilmselt püsivamat ülemvõimu Eesti alal kehtestada ei suutnud ja sageli ei Extraspel. There is a plethora of weekly newspapers and magazines, and Estonians have a choice of 9 domestic TV channels and a host of radio stations. Before the Soviet occupationthe Germans Pay The Fortune Teller Jewish minorities managed to elect a cultural council. Vene keel hakkas omandama järjest tähtsamat rolli.
Wikipedia Estland

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