Vikings used a number of ancient symbols based on Norse mythology. Symbols played a vital role in the Viking society and were used to represent their gods. Dieser Artikel befasst sich mit den uns heute bekanntesten Wikinger Symbole sowie auch andere Wikingersymbole der nordischen Kultur, Mythologie. - Erkunde andys Pinnwand „viking symbole“ auf Pinterest. Weitere Ideen zu wikingersymbole, nordische symbole, wikinger tattoo.
Die geheime Bedeutung des “Vikings”-LogosVikings used a number of ancient symbols based on Norse mythology. Symbols played a vital role in the Viking society and were used to represent their gods. Viking Tattoos are very popular among men and women, because it carries a mystical meaning. Vikings were famed for their courage, be it bravery in battle or the. - Erkunde andys Pinnwand „viking symbole“ auf Pinterest. Weitere Ideen zu wikingersymbole, nordische symbole, wikinger tattoo.
Vikings Zeichen Erklärung aufgetaucht VideoVIKINGS Season 6B Final Trailer (2020) Drama Series
Der nachfolgende Casinoanbieter Vergleich Vikings Zeichen Ihnen einen detaillierten Гberblick! - Valknut, WotansknotenVon dieser Mythologie oder Dichtung gibt es verschiedene Variationen.
In charge of defending the city from the Vikings. Based on the historical Odo of France. He is flogged to death by Roland on Emperor Charles's orders.
Daughter of Emperor Charles and later wedded to Duke Rollo. Based on the historical or legendary Gisela of France. Count Odo's first-in-command.
He has an incestuous relationship with his sister, Therese. He is assassinated with his sister by Emperor Charles's men.
A noblewoman, Roland's sister, and Count Odo's mistress. She is assassinated with her brother by Emperor Charles's men.
Ragnar and Kwenthrith's supposed illegitimate son. After spending most of his life as a hostage he is evicted by Aethelwulf when Ragnar denies being his father.
Magnus eventually starts to consider himself a Viking, converts to the religion of the Norse gods and joins Harald. He takes part of Bjorn and Hvitserks siege of Kattegat where he suffers from a crisis of faith.
Eventually coming to terms with his new identity as a pagan, he tries to scale the walls as the battle turns against Bjorn. Harald attempts to pull him to safety, but Magnus is shot to death by White Hair, when he fails to protect himself with his shield.
Chinese slave belonging to Aslaug. Yidu becomes protective of the sons of Ragnar. She also forms a close bond with Ragnar, providing him with a drug and becoming his lover.
Later she becomes distressed with the Viking way of life and tries to leave Ragnar. When she refuses to provide him with more of the drug, Ragnar drowns her.
Shieldmaiden and lover of Lagertha. She and Bjorn have a secret affair. She is later kidnapped by king Harald whom she marries. When attempting to warn Lagertha of an incoming attack she is raped by the whaler she tries to bribe.
Soon after she finds herself pregnant and induces Lagertha to kill her during battle, she admits that she was always her true love.
After her death, Harald carries her earring around as remembrance and swears vengeance on Lagertha. Through she married Harald to gain power, she has some feelings for him, trying to have Ivar send troops to help him when Harald is overwhelmed by Lagertha in battle.
She is disturbed by Ivar and fears him. She is later freed and married by Ubbe. Hvitserk remains her lover with Ubbe's consent.
Ubbe eventually rejects her to marry Torvi, causing Margrethe to go insane. Hvitserk takes care of her, but when Ivar has a dream where Margrethe stabs him, he sends assassins to murder her.
This furthers the rift between Hvitserk and Ivar. A Moorish orphan girl adopted by Helga. When Helga brings her to the sack of Ecbert's villa, Tanaruz snaps and stabs Helga and then kills herself.
A nobleman and member of the clergy of Wessex. The leader of Ivar's bodyguards. After Ivar's defeat, he is outcast from Kattegat by King Bjorn.
He turns to banditry and raids the village where Lagertha has retired, killing Bjorn's son Halli in such a raid.
Lagertha leads the resistance and eventually kills White Hair in single combat. Ivar's former slave and love interest.
She becomes Queen of Kattegat by marrying Ivar. As Ivar is impotent, she has sex with a slave whom she later murders in order to produce a child.
Freydis claims she conceived the child through magically consuming Ivar's blood. This and Freydis' sycophancy leads Ivar to declare himself a god.
When the child is eventually born, it's deformed. This causes Ivar's ego to crack and he suspects Freydis has fooled him. Ivar leaves the child out to die, turning Freydis against him.
She shows Hvitserk, Bjorn and Harald a secret way through the walls, allowing them to storm Kattegat. As the city falls, she admits what she has done and Ivar strangles her to death.
A Byzantine abbess. Loosely inspired by the historical Kassiani. A violent and bold patriarch of a large family. He is chosen by Floki for an expedition to set up a colony.
Based on the legendary Ketill Flatnose. A Viking of Kattegat who joins Floki's expedition to set up a colony. He quickly becomes disillusioned when arriving in Iceland and becomes antagonistic to Floki.
His wife Rafarta's brother was killed by Kjetill's father, which also makes him antagonistic to Kjetill. After his son Bul is accidentally killed by Thorgrim, Thorgrim is found drowned.
Floki believes Eyvind was responsible. Eventually Eyvind's daughter in law Thorunn vanishes. Rafarta claims Thorunn was suicidal, which is proven false when Floki produces her hidden body.
Rafarta and Asbjorn are implicited as the murderers and Floki banishes Eyvind and his family from the colony. It's never made clear if Eyvind was in on Asbjorn's and Rafarta's plot.
The family is ravaged by disease and weather and sends Helgi to fetch help. Helgi brings back Floki, Kjetill and Frodi, along with several of Kjetill's farmhands.
The farmhands capture Floki at knifepoint as Kjetill and Frodi murders Eyvind and all of his family. La culture viking n'y fait pas exception, bien au contraire.
Nous vous conseillons :. Vous ne pourrez pas faire meilleur affaire! On commence notre tour d'horizon des symboles vikings avec le Valknut!
Es liegt also an jedem selbst ob er diesem Symbol eine Be-Deutung zuweist oder für sich selbst annimmt, was das Vegvisir vermutlich sein soll oder ist.
Manche Menschen interpretieren in dem Symbol bzw. Der Kreis innerhalb des Vegvisir findet sich zum ersten Mal bildlich abgebildet in den Jahr er Jahren.
Soll dieser Kreis für einen anderen Menschen eine Bedeutung haben, so wird im Zentrum des Vegvisir eine Rune platziert geschrieben , die dem Menschen in seinem Wesen ähnelt, als das was er selbst ist.
Ursprung und Herkunft oder Bedeutung sind nicht genau bekannt Interpretation. Gesichert scheint, dass dieses Symbol schon vor über Jahre in der Indischen Kunst zu finden ist.
Da es aber auch eine Nähe zu dem keltischen und germanischen Kulturkreis gibt ist die Herkunft des Triquetra zwischen diesen beiden Kulturen nicht genau herzuleiten.
Wahrscheinlich wurde es ebenfalls als Schutz-Symbol genutzt, gesichert ist dies nicht. Die Triquetra kann auch einen rituellen oder religiösen Charakter gehabt haben, welcher uns heute nicht bekannt ist.
Aber auch im keltischen Sinn als Erde, Himmel und Wasser. Oder Niederkunft, Leben sowie Tod. Later in their history, they began to settle in other lands.
This expansion occurred during the Medieval Warm Period. Viking expansion into continental Europe was limited. Their realm was bordered by powerful tribes to the south.
The Saxons were a fierce and powerful people and were often in conflict with the Vikings. To counter the Saxon aggression and solidify their own presence, the Danes constructed the huge defence fortification of Danevirke in and around Hedeby.
The Vikings witnessed the violent subduing of the Saxons by Charlemagne , in the thirty-year Saxon Wars of — The Saxon defeat resulted in their forced christening and the absorption of Old Saxony into the Carolingian Empire.
Fear of the Franks led the Vikings to further expand Danevirke, and the defence constructions remained in use throughout the Viking Age and even up until The south coast of the Baltic Sea was ruled by the Obotrites , a federation of Slavic tribes loyal to the Carolingians and later the Frankish empire.
Because of the expansion of the Vikings across Europe, a comparison of DNA and archeology undertaken by scientists at the University of Cambridge and University of Copenhagen suggested that the term "Viking" may have evolved to become "a job description, not a matter of heredity," at least in some Viking bands.
Researchers have suggested that Vikings may have originally started sailing and raiding due to a need to seek out women from foreign lands.
Due to this, the average Viking man could have been forced to perform riskier actions to gain wealth and power to be able to find suitable women.
One common theory posits that Charlemagne "used force and terror to Christianise all pagans", leading to baptism, conversion or execution, and as a result, Vikings and other pagans resisted and wanted revenge.
However, this time period did not commence until the 10th century, Norway was never subject to aggression by Charlemagne and the period of strife was due to successive Norwegian kings embracing Christianity after encountering it overseas.
Another explanation is that the Vikings exploited a moment of weakness in the surrounding regions.
Lack of organised naval opposition throughout Western Europe allowed Viking ships to travel freely, raiding or trading as opportunity permitted. The decline in the profitability of old trade routes could also have played a role.
Trade between western Europe and the rest of Eurasia suffered a severe blow when the Western Roman Empire fell in the 5th century.
Raids in Europe, including raids and settlements from Scandinavia, were not unprecedented and had occurred long before the Vikings arrived.
The Jutes invaded the British Isles three centuries earlier, pouring out from Jutland during the Age of Migrations , before the Danes settled there.
The Saxons and the Angles did the same, embarking from mainland Europe. The Viking raids were, however, the first to be documented in writing by eyewitnesses, and they were much larger in scale and frequency than in previous times.
Vikings themselves were expanding; although their motives are unclear, historians believe that scarce resources or a lack of mating opportunities were a factor.
The "Highway of Slaves" was a term for a route that the Vikings found to have a direct pathway from Scandinavia to Constantinople and Baghdad while traveling on the Baltic Sea.
With the advancements of their ships during the ninth century, the Vikings were able to sail to Kievan Rus and some northern parts of Europe.
Jomsborg was a semi-legendary Viking stronghold at the southern coast of the Baltic Sea medieval Wendland , modern Pomerania , that existed between the s and Its inhabitants were known as Jomsvikings.
Jomsborg's exact location, or its existence, has not yet been established, though it is often maintained that Jomsborg was somewhere on the islands of the Oder estuary.
While the Vikings were active beyond their Scandinavian homelands, Scandinavia was itself experiencing new influences and undergoing a variety of cultural changes.
By the late 11th century, royal dynasties were legitimised by the Catholic Church which had had little influence in Scandinavia years earlier which were asserting their power with increasing authority and ambition, with the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden taking shape.
Towns appeared that functioned as secular and ecclesiastical administrative centres and market sites, and monetary economies began to emerge based on English and German models.
Christianity had taken root in Denmark and Norway with the establishment of dioceses in the 11th century, and the new religion was beginning to organise and assert itself more effectively in Sweden.
Foreign churchmen and native elites were energetic in furthering the interests of Christianity, which was now no longer operating only on a missionary footing, and old ideologies and lifestyles were transforming.
By , the first archbishopric was founded in Scandinavia, at Lund , Scania, then part of Denmark.
The assimilation of the nascent Scandinavian kingdoms into the cultural mainstream of European Christendom altered the aspirations of Scandinavian rulers and of Scandinavians able to travel overseas, and changed their relations with their neighbours.
One of the primary sources of profit for the Vikings had been slave-taking from other European peoples. The medieval Church held that Christians should not own fellow Christians as slaves, so chattel slavery diminished as a practice throughout northern Europe.
This took much of the economic incentive out of raiding, though sporadic slaving activity continued into the 11th century. Scandinavian predation in Christian lands around the North and Irish Seas diminished markedly.
The kings of Norway continued to assert power in parts of northern Britain and Ireland, and raids continued into the 12th century, but the military ambitions of Scandinavian rulers were now directed toward new paths.
In , Sigurd I of Norway sailed for the eastern Mediterranean with Norwegian crusaders to fight for the newly established Kingdom of Jerusalem , and Danes and Swedes participated energetically in the Baltic Crusades of the 12th and 13th centuries.
A variety of sources illuminate the culture, activities, and beliefs of the Vikings. Although they were generally a non-literate culture that produced no literary legacy, they had an alphabet and described themselves and their world on runestones.
Most contemporary literary and written sources on the Vikings come from other cultures that were in contact with them.
The most important primary sources on the Vikings are contemporary texts from Scandinavia and regions where the Vikings were active.
Most contemporary documentary sources consist of texts written in Christian and Islamic communities outside Scandinavia, often by authors who had been negatively affected by Viking activity.
Later writings on the Vikings and the Viking Age can also be important for understanding them and their culture, although they need to be treated cautiously.
After the consolidation of the church and the assimilation of Scandinavia and its colonies into the mainstream of medieval Christian culture in the 11th and 12th centuries, native written sources begin to appear in Latin and Old Norse.
In the Viking colony of Iceland, an extraordinary vernacular literature blossomed in the 12th through 14th centuries, and many traditions connected with the Viking Age were written down for the first time in the Icelandic sagas.
A literal interpretation of these medieval prose narratives about the Vikings and the Scandinavian past is doubtful, but many specific elements remain worthy of consideration, such as the great quantity of skaldic poetry attributed to court poets of the 10th and 11th centuries, the exposed family trees, the self images, the ethical values, that are contained in these literary writings.
Indirectly, the Vikings have also left a window open onto their language, culture and activities, through many Old Norse place names and words found in their former sphere of influence.
Some of these place names and words are still in direct use today, almost unchanged, and shed light on where they settled and what specific places meant to them.
Viking influence is also evident in concepts like the present-day parliamentary body of the Tynwald on the Isle of Man. Some modern words and names only emerge and contribute to our understanding after a more intense research of linguistic sources from medieval or later records, such as York Horse Bay , Swansea Sveinn 's Isle or some of the place names in Normandy like Tocqueville Toki's farm.
Linguistic and etymological studies continue to provide a vital source of information on the Viking culture, their social structure and history and how they interacted with the people and cultures they met, traded, attacked or lived with in overseas settlements.
It has been speculated that the reason for this was the great differences between the two languages, combined with the Rus' Vikings more peaceful businesses in these areas and the fact that they were outnumbered.
The Norse named some of the rapids on the Dnieper , but this can hardly be seen from the modern names. The Norse of the Viking Age could read and write and used a non-standardised alphabet, called runor , built upon sound values.
While there are few remains of runic writing on paper from the Viking era, thousands of stones with runic inscriptions have been found where Vikings lived.
They are usually in memory of the dead, though not necessarily placed at graves. The use of runor survived into the 15th century, used in parallel with the Latin alphabet.
The runestones are unevenly distributed in Scandinavia: Denmark has runestones, Norway has 50 while Iceland has none. The Swedish district of Uppland has the highest concentration with as many as 1, inscriptions in stone, whereas Södermanland is second with The majority of runic inscriptions from the Viking period are found in Sweden.
Many runestones in Scandinavia record the names of participants in Viking expeditions, such as the Kjula runestone that tells of extensive warfare in Western Europe and the Turinge Runestone , which tells of a war band in Eastern Europe.
Other runestones mention men who died on Viking expeditions. Among them include the England runestones Swedish : Englandsstenarna which is a group of about 30 runestones in Sweden which refer to Viking Age voyages to England.
They were engraved in Old Norse with the Younger Futhark. The Jelling stones date from between and The older, smaller stone was raised by King Gorm the Old , the last pagan king of Denmark, as a memorial honouring Queen Thyre.
It has three sides: one with an animal image, one with an image of the crucified Jesus Christ, and a third bearing the following inscription:.
Runestones attest to voyages to locations such as Bath ,  Greece how the Vikings referred to the Byzantium territories generally ,  Khwaresm ,  Jerusalem ,  Italy as Langobardland ,  Serkland i.
Viking Age inscriptions have also been discovered on the Manx runestones on the Isle of Man. The last known people to use the Runic alphabet were an isolated group of people known as the Elfdalians , that lived in the locality of Älvdalen in the Swedish province of Dalarna.
They spoke the language of Elfdalian , the language unique to Älvdalen. The Elfdalian language differentiates itself from the other Scandinavian languages as it evolved much closer to Old Norse.
The people of Älvdalen stopped using runes as late as the s. Usage of runes therefore survived longer in Älvdalen than anywhere else in the world.
Traditionally regarded as a Swedish dialect,  but by several criteria closer related to West Scandinavian dialects,  Elfdalian is a separate language by the standard of mutual intelligibility.
Residents in the area who speak only Swedish as their sole native language, neither speaking nor understanding Elfdalian, are also common.
Älvdalen can be said to have had its own alphabet during the 17th and 18th century. Today there are about 2, native speakers of Elfdalian.
The burial practices of the Vikings were quite varied, from dug graves in the ground, to tumuli , sometimes including so-called ship burials.
According to written sources, most of the funerals took place at sea. The funerals involved either burial or cremation , depending on local customs.
In the area that is now Sweden, cremations were predominant; in Denmark burial was more common; and in Norway both were common. There have been several archaeological finds of Viking ships of all sizes, providing knowledge of the craftsmanship that went into building them.
There were many types of Viking ships, built for various uses; the best-known type is probably the longship. The longship had a long, narrow hull and shallow draught to facilitate landings and troop deployments in shallow water.
Longships were used extensively by the Leidang , the Scandinavian defence fleets. The longship allowed the Norse to go Viking , which might explain why this type of ship has become almost synonymous with the concept of Vikings.
The Vikings built many unique types of watercraft, often used for more peaceful tasks. The knarr was a dedicated merchant vessel designed to carry cargo in bulk.
It had a broader hull, deeper draught, and a small number of oars used primarily to manoeuvre in harbours and similar situations.
One Viking innovation was the ' beitass ', a spar mounted to the sail that allowed their ships to sail effectively against the wind.
Ships were an integral part of the Viking culture. They facilitated everyday transportation across seas and waterways, exploration of new lands, raids, conquests, and trade with neighbouring cultures.
They also held a major religious importance. People with high status were sometimes buried in a ship along with animal sacrifices, weapons, provisions and other items, as evidenced by the buried vessels at Gokstad and Oseberg in Norway  and the excavated ship burial at Ladby in Denmark.
Ship burials were also practised by Vikings abroad, as evidenced by the excavations of the Salme ships on the Estonian island of Saaremaa.
Well-preserved remains of five Viking ships were excavated from Roskilde Fjord in the late s, representing both the longship and the knarr.
The ships were scuttled there in the 11th century to block a navigation channel and thus protect Roskilde , then the Danish capital, from seaborne assault.
The remains of these ships are on display at the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde. In , archaeologists uncovered two Viking boat graves in Gamla Uppsala.
They also discovered that one of the boats still holds the remains of a man, a dog, and a horse, along with other items.
Viking society was divided into the three socio-economic classes: Thralls, Karls and Jarls. Archaeology has confirmed this social structure.
Thralls were the lowest ranking class and were slaves. Slaves comprised as much as a quarter of the population. Thralls were servants and workers in the farms and larger households of the Karls and Jarls, and they were used for constructing fortifications, ramps, canals, mounds, roads and similar hard work projects.
According to the Rigsthula, Thralls were despised and looked down upon. New thralls were supplied by either the sons and daughters of thralls or captured abroad.
The Vikings often deliberately captured many people on their raids in Europe, to enslave them as thralls. The thralls were then brought back home to Scandinavia by boat, used on location or in newer settlements to build needed structures, or sold, often to the Arabs in exchange for silver.
Karls were free peasants. They owned farms, land and cattle and engaged in daily chores like ploughing the fields, milking the cattle, building houses and wagons, but used thralls to make ends meet.
Other names for Karls were 'bonde' or simply free men. The Jarls were the aristocracy of the Viking society. They were wealthy and owned large estates with huge longhouses, horses and many thralls.
The thralls did most of the daily chores, while the Jarls did administration, politics, hunting, sports, visited other Jarls or went abroad on expeditions.
When a Jarl died and was buried, his household thralls were sometimes sacrificially killed and buried next to him, as many excavations have revealed.
In daily life, there were many intermediate positions in the overall social structure and it is believed that there must have been some social mobility.
These details are unclear, but titles and positions like hauldr , thegn , landmand , show mobility between the Karls and the Jarls. Members of the latter were referred to as drenge , one of the words for warrior.
There were also official communities within towns and villages, the overall defence, religion, the legal system and the Things.
Like elsewhere in medieval Europe, most women in Viking society were subordinate to their husbands and fathers and had little political power.
Most free Viking women were housewives, and the woman's standing in society was linked to that of her husband.
Norse laws assert the housewife's authority over the 'indoor household'. She had the important roles of managing the farm's resources, conducting business, as well as child-rearing, although some of this would be shared with her husband.
After the age of 20, an unmarried woman, referred to as maer and mey , reached legal majority and had the right to decide her place of residence and was regarded as her own person before the law.
Concubinage was also part of Viking society, whereby a woman could live with a man and have children with him without marrying; such a woman was called a frilla.
A woman had the right to inherit part of her husband's property upon his death,  and widows enjoyed the same independent status as unmarried women.
Such a woman was referred to as Baugrygr , and she exercised all the rights afforded to the head of a family clan, until she married, by which her rights were transferred to her new husband.
Women had religious authority and were active as priestesses gydja and oracles sejdkvinna. Examinations of Viking Age burials suggests that women lived longer, and nearly all well past the age of 35, as compared to earlier times.
Female graves from before the Viking Age in Scandinavia holds a proportional large number of remains from women aged 20 to 35, presumably due to complications of childbirth.
Scandinavian Vikings were similar in appearance to modern Scandinavians ; "their skin was fair and the hair color varied between blond, dark and reddish".
Genetic studies show that people were mostly blond in what is now eastern Sweden, while red hair was mostly found in western Scandinavia.
Men involved in warfare, for example, may have had slightly shorter hair and beards for practical reasons. Men in some regions bleached their hair a golden saffron color.
The three classes were easily recognisable by their appearances. Men and women of the Jarls were well groomed with neat hairstyles and expressed their wealth and status by wearing expensive clothes often silk and well crafted jewellery like brooches , belt buckles, necklaces and arm rings.
Almost all of the jewellery was crafted in specific designs unique to the Norse see Viking art. Finger rings were seldom used and earrings were not used at all, as they were seen as a Slavic phenomenon.
Mjölnir is known for its ability to destroy mountains. But it was not just a weapon. Loki made a bet with two dwarves, Brokkr and Sindri or Eitri that they could not make something better than the items created by the Sons of Ivaldi the dwarves who created Odin's spear Gungnir and Freyr's foldable boat skioblaonir.
Then he gave the hammer to Thor, and said that Thor might smite as hard as he desired, whatsoever might be before him, and the hammer would not fail; and if he threw it at anything, it would never miss, and never fly so far as not to return to his hand; and if be desired, he might keep it in his sark, it was so small; but indeed it was a flaw in the hammer that the fore-haft handle was somewhat short.
Thor also used Mjölnir to hallow, or to bless. With Mjölnir, Thor could bring some things such as the goats who drew his chariot back to life.
Thor was invoked at weddings, at births, and at special ceremonies for these abilities to bless, make holy, and protect. Hundreds of Mjölnir amulets have been discovered in Viking graves and other Norse archaeological sites.
Some experts have postulated that these amulets became increasingly popular as Vikings came into contact with Christians, as a way to differentiate themselves as followers of the Old Ways and not the strange faith of their enemies.
This may or may not be true. Certainly, amulets of many kinds have been in use since pre-historic times. Interestingly, Mjölnir amulets were still worn by Norse Christians sometimes in conjunction with a cross after the Old Ways began to fade, so we can see that the symbol still had great meaning even after its relevance to religion had changed.
With its association with Thor, the protector god of war and the of nature's awe, the Mjölnir stands for power, strength, bravery, good luck, and protection from all harm.
It is also an easily-recognizable sign that one holds the Old Ways in respect. Viking Axe The most famous, and perhaps most common, Viking weapon was the axe.
Viking axes ranged in size from hand axes similar to tomahawks to long-hafted battle axes. Unlike the axes usually depicted in fantasy illustrations, Viking axes were single-bitted to make them faster and more maneuverable.
Viking axes were sometimes "bearded," which is to say that the lower portion of the axe head was hook-shaped to facilitate catching and pulling shield rims or limbs.
The axe required far less iron, time, or skill to produce than a sword; and because it was an important tool on farms and homesteads, the Norse would have had them in hand since childhood.
The Viking axe would make the Norsemen famous, and even after the Viking Age waned, the descendants of the Vikings such as the Varangians of Byzantium or the Galloglass of Ireland would be sought after as bodyguards or elite mercenaries specifically for their axe skill.
As the Vikings traveled East into lands held by the Balts and Slavs, they encountered peoples who worshipped a god called Perun a.
Perun was a sky god and a god of thunder, like Thor. Like Thor, Perun was the champion of mankind, a protector from evil and slayer of monsters. Like Thor, he was a cheerful, invincible, red-bearded warrior who traversed the heavens in a goat-drawn chariot.
The biggest difference between Perun and Thor seems to be that while Thor fought with his mighty hammer, Mjolnir, Perun fought with an axe.
Even as numerous Mjolnir amulets have been discovered in Viking Age sites in Scandinavia, many axe-shaped amulets have been discovered in the Baltic, Russia, and Ukraine.
This may indicate that as Vikings found new homes in the lands that are now Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania, and Latvia they found common ground with the people there through the shared characteristics of gods like Thor and Perun.
As a symbol, the axe stands for bravery, strength, and audacity. It is a reminder of heritage and the accomplishments of ancestors who bent the world to their will using only what they had.
It is a symbol of the berserker, and all that entails. It conveys the heart or mind's ability to cut through that which holds one back and to forge boldly ahead.
All nine worlds or nine dimensions are entwined in its branches and its roots. Yggdrasil, therefore, serves as a conduit or pathway between these nine dimensions that the gods might travel.
If this all seems a little difficult to imagine, you are not alone. Remember, myth is a means for people to understand cosmic truth.
For our ancestors, myths like these were as close as they could come to science; and even as quantum physics is difficult for many of us to "picture", it is still our way of describing the truth as we have found it to be.
Yggdrasil was a way of thinking about reality and about how different realities could be connected maybe similar in some ways to modern multiverse theory.
As Dan McCoy of Norse-mythology. As a symbol, Yggdrasil represents the cosmos, the relationship between time and destiny, harmony, the cycles of creation, and the essence of nature.
The longship was the soul of the Viking. The word "Viking" does not simply mean any medieval Scandinavian, but rather a man or woman who dared to venture forth into the unknown.
The longship was the means by which that was accomplished. We have eyewitness accounts from centuries before the Vikings that tell us the Norse always were into their ships, but technological advances they made in ship design around the eighth century revolutionized what these ships were able to do.
The Viking ships could row with oars or catch the wind with a broad, square sail. They were flexible and supple in the wild oceans. They were keeled for speed and precision.
Most importantly to Viking mobility and military superiority, they had a very shallow draught. All this meant that Vikings could cross the cold seas from Scandinavia to places that had never heard of them, then use river ways to move deep into these lands all while outpacing any enemies who might come against them.
It took the greatest powers in Europe a long time to even figure out how to address this kind of threat.
It was no wonder that the Viking ships were called dragon ships, for it was as if an otherworldly force was unleashed upon the peoples of Europe.
Accounts from the very first recorded Viking raid Lindisfarne even speak of monks seeing visions of dragons in a prophecy of this doom.
There are two ships that stand out in Norse Mythology. Nalgfar is the ship of the goddess, Hel. It is made from the fingernails of the dead.
At Ragnarok it will rise from the depths, and — oared by giants and with Loki at its helm — it will cross the Bifrost bridge to lead the assault on Asgard.
This myth shows how the Vikings viewed ships — a good ship can take you anywhere. The relationship of the Vikings to their ships is even more striking when we realize that - in some ways - these ships were glorified boats, and not what we think of as ships at all.